Induction chemotherapy and conformal radiation therapy for very young children with nonmetastatic medulloblastoma: Children's Oncology Group study P9934.
PURPOSE: P9934 was a prospective trial of systemic chemotherapy, second surgery, and conformal radiation therapy (CRT) limited to the posterior fossa and primary site for children between 8 months and 3 years old with nonmetastatic medulloblastoma. The study was open from June 2000 until June 2006. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After initial surgery, children received four cycles of induction chemotherapy, followed by age- and response-adjusted CRT to the posterior fossa (18 or 23.4 Gy) and tumor bed (cumulative 50.4 or 54 Gy) and maintenance chemotherapy. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were evaluated and event-free survival (EFS) results were directly compared with a previous study of multiagent chemotherapy without irradiation (Pediatric Oncology Group [POG] trial 9233). RESULTS: Seventy-four patients met eligibility requirements. The 4-year EFS and overall survival probabilities were 50% ± 6% and 69% ± 5.5%, respectively, which compared favorably to the results from POG 9233. Analysis showed that the desmoplastic/nodular subtype was a favorable factor in predicting survival. Our 4-year EFS rate was 58% ± 8% for patients with desmoplasia. Whereas seven of 10 patients who had disease progression before CRT had primary-site failure, 15 of 19 patients who progressed after CRT had distant-site failure. Neurodevelopmental assessments did not show a decline in cognitive or motor function after protocol-directed chemotherapy and CRT. CONCLUSION: The addition of CRT to postoperative chemotherapy in young children with nonmetastatic medulloblastoma increased event-free survival compared with the use of postoperative chemotherapy alone. Future studies will use histopathologic typing (desmoplastic/nodular versus nondesmoplastic/nodular) to stratify patients for therapy by risk of relapse.
Ashley, DM; Merchant, TE; Strother, D; Zhou, T; Duffner, P; Burger, PC; Miller, DC; Lyon, N; Bonner, MJ; Msall, M; Buxton, A; Geyer, R; Kun, LE; Coleman, L; Pollack, IF
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