Caregiving, residence, race, and depressive symptoms.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychological responses to caregiving between black and white dementia caregivers measured by self-reports of depressive symptoms evaluating the impact of sub-components of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and residential arrangements of the caregiving dyad. The method included 87 intergenerational family caregivers enrolled in the Duke Caregiver Study (50 white and 37 black). Total CES-D and the four sub-components were modeled as dependent measures in separate linear regressions. Three models were examined. The first model tested race, living arrangements, and their interaction. The second model adjusted for age, gender, education, income, health status, cultural justification for caregiving, crime concerns, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and glycosylated hemoglobin. A third model added adjustment for caregiver burden. The results showed that there was a significant race by residence interaction for CES-D, somatic symptoms and depressive affect such that when the dyads are living apart-with the care recipient in their own home or in an institutional setting-whites reported more depressive symptoms than blacks. When the dyads lived together, this was reversed, and blacks reported higher depressive symptoms than whites. To conclude, all the parameters such as race, living arrangements, and the components of depression need to be taken into account to understand the impact of caregiving on the emotional health of caregivers.
Siegler, IC; Brummett, BH; Williams, RB; Haney, TL; Dilworth-Anderson, P
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)