Update on pediatric cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cataract surgery is the most commonly performed intraocular surgery in the pediatric population worldwide. Although the basic surgical techniques have not significantly changed over the last several years, there are many related issues under continual debate and research. These include use of local perioperative anesthesia, capsular management, type and power of intraocular lenses (IOLs), sutured IOLs, and risk of subsequent glaucoma. This review will primarily focus on postsurgical outcomes and IOL-related controversies. RECENT FINDINGS: The just completed Infant Aphakia Treatment Study aims to answer questions regarding visual outcomes with primary IOL implantation versus contact lens use in children less than 7 months old with a unilateral congenital cataract. But correct IOL selection is controversial as recent studies highlight difficulties with biometry measurement and IOL calculations in the entire pediatric population. We also discuss the risk of late suture breakage and dislocation with sutured IOLs and the risks of aphakic glaucoma. SUMMARY: Worldwide experiences with pediatric cataract surgery and IOL implantation are constantly evolving. Expectations of good outcomes by the patients, families, and surgeons are also increasing therefore continued efforts to improve techniques and formulas specific to the pediatric population are critical.
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