Mutations in genes required for T-cell development: IL7R, CD45, IL2RG, JAK3, RAG1, RAG2, ARTEMIS, and ADA and severe combined immunodeficiency: HuGE review.
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an inherited immune disorder characterized by T-cell lymphopenia (TCLP), a profound lack of cellular (T-cell) and humoral (B-cell) immunity and, in some cases, decreased NK-cell number and function. Affected children develop severe bacterial and viral infections within the first 6 months of life and die before 1 year of age without treatment. Mutations in any of eight known genes: IL2RG, ARTEMIS, RAG1, RAG2, ADA, CD45, JAK3, and IL7R cause SCID. Mutations in unidentified genes may also cause SCID. Population-based genotype and allelic frequencies of these gene defects have not been measured. Some minimal estimates of SCID prevalence are presented. Currently, hematopoietic stem cell transplants are the standard treatment. In clinical trials, gene therapy has been used to reconstitute immune function in patients with IL2RG and ADA defects. The availability of effective therapies, plus the short asymptomatic period after birth, (when stem-cell transplantation is most effective), make SCID a potentially good candidate for newborn screening. Dried blood spots are currently collected from all infants at birth for newborn metabolic screening. Tests for TCLP on dried blood spots could be developed as a screen for SCID. Because SCID may be unrecognized, with infant deaths from infection attributed to other causes, newborn screening is the only way to ascertain true birth prevalence. Validated tests and pilot population studies are necessary to determine newborn screening's potential for identifying infants with SCID.
Kalman, L; Lindegren, ML; Kobrynski, L; Vogt, R; Hannon, H; Howard, JT; Buckley, R
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