Balb/c thyroids, held in organ culture for 26 days, survive and function as well as isografts for > 100 days in CBA recipients. Uncultured allografts are totally rejected by 20 days after transplantation. Prolonged allograft survival can also be achieved by the treatment of donor animals with cyclophosphamide prior to harvesting tissues for transplantation. These allografts do not survive as well as 26 day cultured allografts, but cyclophosphamide pretreatment reduces the culture time required to achieve indefinite survival to 7 days. The provision of an allogeneic (LD) stimulus by thyroid tissue that is I-region incompatible with the host does not facilitate the rejection of a tolerated cultured allograft. However, activation of the host immune system by an uncultured graft syngeneic to a tolerated cultured allograft leads to the chronic rejection of the cultured transplant. The transfer of a tolerated cultured allograft back to its strain of origin induces an acute inflammatory reaction that causes tissue damage within the transplant but does not lead to the total destruction of the tissue.