Everyday life with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis: independent effects of disease and gender on daily pain, mood, and coping.
The effects of disease (form of arthritis) and gender on pain, mood, and pain coping strategies were examined in a prospective 30-day diary study of 71 patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and 76 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Diary instruments included joint pain ratings, POMS-B checklists for positive and negative mood, and the Daily Coping Inventory. Women's average daily pain was 72% greater than men's pain, and RA patients' average daily pain was 42% greater than OA patients' pain. Hierarchical Linear Models were estimated for (a) within-person associations between pain and next-day mood; coping and next-day pain; and coping and next-day mood; and (b) the independent effects of disease and gender on individual intercepts for pain, mood, and coping and on individual slopes for pain-coping-mood relations. Women, regardless of their disease, and RA patients, regardless of their gender, reported more daily pain. Women used more emotion-focused strategies each day than did men, regardless of their disease and even after controlling for their greater pain. Men were more likely than women to report an increase in negative mood the day after a more painful day. RA patients' pain worsened, but OA patients' pain improved, following a day with more emotion-focused coping. Implications for research and clinical practice are summarized.
Affleck, G; Tennen, H; Keefe, FJ; Lefebvre, JC; Kashikar-Zuck, S; Wright, K; Starr, K; Caldwell, DS
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