Value of clinician assessment of hemodynamics in advanced heart failure: the ESCAPE trial.
BACKGROUND: We determined whether estimated hemodynamics from history and physical examination (H&P) reflect invasive measurements and predict outcomes in advanced heart failure (HF). The role of the H&P in medical decision making has declined in favor of diagnostic tests, perhaps due to lack of evidence for utility. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared H&P estimates of filling pressures and cardiac index with invasive measurements in 194 patients in the ESCAPE trial. H&P estimates were compared with 6-month outcomes in 388 patients enrolled in ESCAPE. Measured right atrial pressure (RAP) was <8 mm Hg in 82% of patients with RAP estimated from jugular veins as <8 mm Hg, and was >12 mm Hg in 70% of patients when estimated as >12 mm Hg. From the H&P, only estimated RAP > or =12 mm Hg (odds ratio [OR] 4.6; P<0.001) and orthopnea > or =2 pillows (OR 3.6; P<0.05) were associated with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) > or =30 mm Hg. Estimated cardiac index did not reliably reflect measured cardiac index (P=0.09), but "cold" versus "warm" profile was associated with lower median measured cardiac index (1.75 vs. 2.0 L/min/m(2); P=0.004). In Cox regression analysis, discharge "cold" or "wet" profile conveyed a 50% increased risk of death or rehospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: In advanced HF, the presence of orthopnea and elevated jugular venous pressure are useful to detect elevated PCWP, and a global assessment of inadequate perfusion ("cold" profile) is useful to detect reduced cardiac index. Hemodynamic profiles estimated from the discharge H&P identify patients at increased risk of early events.
Drazner, MH; Hellkamp, AS; Leier, CV; Shah, MR; Miller, LW; Russell, SD; Young, JB; Califf, RM; Nohria, A
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