Modifiable risk factors for vascular access site complications in the IMPACT II trial of angioplasty with versus without eptifibatide
Objectives. This study was designed to identify potential predictors of vascular access site (VAS) complications in the largescale Integrilin to Minimize Platelet Aggregation and Coronary Thrombosis (IMPACT) II trial, which studied angioplasty with versus without a new glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor inhibitor (eptifibatide). Background. GP IIb/IIIa receptor inhibition during coronary interventions has been associated with excess VAS complications. If other predictors of VAS complications could be identified, they might be manipulated to reduce complications. Methods. A total of 4,010 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary revascularization (PTCR) were randomized into one of three bolus/20- to 24-h infusion arms: placebo bolus/placebo infusion; 135-μg/kg body weight eptifibatide bolus/0.5-μg/kg per min eptifibatide infusion; or 135-μg/kg eptifibatide bolus/0.75-μg/kg per min eptifibatide infusion. Heparin during the procedure was weight adjusted and stopped 4 h before sheaths were removed. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify independent predictors of VAS complications. Results. VAS complications were more common in patients treated with eptifibatide (9.9% vs. 5.9% placebo-treated patients, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified eptifibatide therapy (p < 0.0001), advanced age (p = 0.0001), longer time to sheath removal (p = 0.0002), stent placement (with intense post-stent anticoagulation) (p = 0.0004), female gender (p = 0.0006), PTCR within 24 h of thrombolytic therapy (p = 0.002), larger heparin doses during PTCR (p = 0.009), major coronary dissection (p = 0.03) and placement of a venous sheath (p = 0.04) as independent predictors of VAS complications. Conclusions. VAS complications may be reduced by early sheath removal, by avoiding placement of venous sheaths and by limiting heparin dosing to avoid excessive activated clotting times. Early sheath removal during inhibition of platelet aggregation by eptifibatide is feasible.
Mandak, JS; Blankenship, JC; Gardner, LH; Berkowitz, SD; Aguirre, FV; Sigmon, KN; Timmis, GC; Gilchrist, IC; McIvor, M; Resar, J; Weiner, BH; George, BS; Talley, JD; Lincoff, AM; Tcheng, JE; Califf, RM; Topol, EJ
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