Higher T-wave amplitude associated with better prognosis in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction (a GUSTO-I Substudy)
Increased T-wave amplitude is one of the earliest electrocardiographic (ECG) changes following coronary artery occlusion. Therefore, higher T waves in the presenting electrocardiogram should represent earlier time to treatment and thus be associated with lower mortality following thrombolytic therapy. However, T-wave amplitude has never been evaluated as a prognostic marker in this setting. We examined clinical outcomes in 3,317 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who underwent thrombolysis in the Global Utilization of Streptokinase and t-PA for Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO- I) Study. Patients were classified as either those with high T waves or those with low T waves. Higher T waves were defined as those >98th percentile of the upper limit of normal. T-wave amplitude was also evaluated as a continuous variable according to infarct location (maximum T-wave amplitude) and as the amount of excess T-wave amplitude above normal (excess T wave amplitude). Patients with higher T waves had lower 30-day mortality than those without (5.2% vs 8.6%, p = 0.001) and were less likely to develop congestive heart failure (15% vs 24%, p <0.001) or cardiogenic shock (6.1% vs 8.6%, p = 0.023). Higher maximum T-wave amplitude and excess T-wave amplitude were predictive of lower 30-day mortality (chi-square = 67, p <0.001 and chi- square = 33, p <0.001, respectively). These differences remain significant after controlling for other prognostic baseline ECG variables. In addition, T-wave amplitude added prognostic significance after controlling for time to treatment. T-wave amplitude, an often-overlooked component of the electrocardiogram, can add significant prognostic information in initial evaluation of patients with AMI.
Hochrein, J; Sun, F; Pieper, KS; Lee, KL; Gates, KB; Armstrong, PW; Weaver, WD; Goodman, SG; Topol, EJ; Califf, RM; Granger, CB; Wagner, GS
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