Human protein phosphatase PP6 regulatory subunits provide Sit4-dependent and rapamycin-sensitive sap function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the protein phosphatase Sit4 and four associated proteins (Sap4, Sap155, Sap185, and Sap190) mediate G(1) to S cell cycle progression and a number of signaling events controlled by the target of rapamycin TOR signaling cascade. Sit4 and the Sap proteins are ubiquitously conserved and their human orthologs, PP6 and three PP6R proteins, share significant sequence identity with their yeast counterparts. However, relatively little is known about the functions of the PP6 and PP6R proteins in mammalian cells. Here we demonstrate that the human PP6R proteins physically interact with Sit4 when expressed in yeast cells. Remarkably, expression of PP6R2 and PP6R3 but not expression of PP6R1 rescues the growth defect and rapamycin hypersensitivity of yeast cells lacking all four Saps, and these effects require Sit4. Moreover, PP6R2 and PP6R3 enhance cyclin G(1) gene expression and DNA synthesis, and partially abrogate the G(1) cell cycle delay and the budding defect of the yeast quadruple sap mutant strain. In contrast, the human PP6R proteins only modestly support nitrogen catabolite gene expression and are unable to restore normal levels of eIF2alpha phosphorylation in the quadruple sap mutant strain. These results illustrate that the human PP6-associated proteins are capable of providing distinct rapamycin-sensitive and Sit4-dependent Sap functions in the heterologous context of the yeast cell. We hypothesize that the human Saps may play analogous roles in mTORC1-PP6 signaling events in metazoans.
Morales-Johansson, H; Puria, R; Brautigan, DL; Cardenas, ME
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