Topoisomerase II: its functions and phosphorylation.
The gene encoding topoisomerase II in yeast is unique and essential, required for both mitotic and meiotic proliferation. The use of temperature-sensitive mutants in topoisomerase II have demonstrated roles in the relaxation of tortional stress, reduction of recombination rates, and in the separation of sister chromatids after replication. In vertebrate cells, topoisomerase II was shown to be the most abundant component of the metaphase chromosomal scaffold, and has been shown to play a role in chromosome condensation in vitro. The cell cycle control of chromosome condensation may well require phosphorylation of topoisomerase II, since the enzyme is more highly phosphorylated in metaphase than in G1. Recent studies have identified casein kinase II as the major enzyme phosphorylating topoisomerase II in intact yeast cells. The target sites of CKII are exclusively in the C-terminal 400 amino acids of topoisomerase II, the region that is most divergent among the eukaryotic type II enzymes and which is absent in the bacterial gyrase homologues.
Gasser, SM; Walter, R; Dang, Q; Cardenas, ME
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