Oncostatin M enhances CCL21 expression by microvascular endothelial cells and increases the efficiency of dendritic cell trafficking to lymph nodes.
CCL21, a lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC)-derived chemokine, and its receptor CCR7 regulate dendritic cell (DC) trafficking to lymph nodes (LN), but it is unclear how CCL21 expression is regulated. Oncostatin M (OSM) is an IL-6-like cytokine synthesized by activated DC and other leukocytes. In vitro, OSM (but not TNF-alpha) stimulated CCL21 mRNA and protein expression by human dermal microvascular EC (DMEC) in an ERK1/2-dependent fashion. Conditioned medium from OSM-treated DMEC stimulated CCL21-dependent chemotaxis of mouse bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC). Cultured BMDC expressed OSM, which was increased with the addition of LPS. Topical application of the contact-sensitizing hapten, trinitrochlorobenzene, resulted in enhanced OSM expression in the skin, whereas cutaneous injection of TNF-alpha did not. Injection of OSM into the footpad increased CCL21 mRNA expression in the draining LN by approximately 10-fold and in mouse skin by approximately 4-fold without increasing CCR7 mRNA. In vitro, OSM increased the permeability of DMEC and lung microvascular EC monolayers to FITC-dextran beads, and, in vivo, it enhanced accumulation of Evans blue dye in draining LN by approximately 3-fold (p = 0.0291). Of note, OSM increased trafficking of BMDC injected in footpads to draining LN by 2-fold (p = 0.016). In summary, OSM up-regulates CCL21 expression in skin and draining regional LN. We propose that OSM is a regulator of CCL21 expression and endothelial permeability in skin, contributing to efficient migration of DC to regional LN.
Sugaya, M; Fang, L; Cardones, AR; Kakinuma, T; Jaber, SH; Blauvelt, A; Hwang, ST
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