The removal of soluble species by warm stratiform clouds.
A one-dimensional, time-dependent model has been developed to study the removal of soluble gases from a warm, precipitating stratiform cloud. The model calculates the distributions of water vapor and condensed water, in the form of cloud drops and raindrops, as well as the in-cloud concentration of a soluble species in the gas and aqueous phases for a specified profile of pressure and temperature and an assumed updraft velocity. Highly soluble gases are found to be rapidly dissolved into cloud droplets and then slowly incorporated into raindrops as cloudwater is converted to rainwater. The model calculations indicate that turbulence represents an important mechanism by which highly soluble gases are transported into stratiform clouds and thus the calculated rate of removal of highly soluble species from these types of clouds is dependent on the parameterization chosen to simulate this process.-from Authors