Non-invasive thermometry using magnetic resonance diffusion imaging: potential for application in hyperthermic oncology.
The proposition to use non-invasive thermometry based on magnetic resonance diffusion imaging for applications in therapeutic hyperthermia is examined. The measurement of proton motion predominantly associated with the self-diffusion of water can be characterized by a Boltzmann temperature dependence (i.e. e-Ea/kT). The activation energy (Ea) is on the order of 0.2 eV and, for a restricted range (approximately 30 degrees) at a base temperature of approximately 300 K, the relationship between the effective diffusion coefficient and temperature is approximately linear. This response has been empirically demonstrated in water-based gel phantoms using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Additionally, it is feasible to have compatibility between radiofrequency (RF) heating devices and MRI equipment. An MRI-compatible heating applicator that includes a hexagonal array of coherently phased dipoles was assembled. This heating array easily fits into a standard 1.5 T head imaging coil (diameter 28 cm). The RF fields associated with heating (130 MHz) and imaging (64 MHz) were decoupled using bandpass filters providing isolation in excess of 100 dB. This isolation was sufficient to allow simultaneous imaging and RF heating without deterioration of the image signal-to-noise ratio. In this report temperature, spatial and time resolution achieved in phantom are examined in order to assess the potential for using this non-invasive temperature measurement in applications of hyperthermic oncology. Using this system and conventional multi-slice imaging techniques, 0.5 degrees C resolution in a voxel size of less than 1 cm3 has been achieved using an acquisition time of 4.15 min.
Samulski, TV; MacFall, J; Zhang, Y; Grant, W; Charles, C
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