Respiratory effects in two-dimensional Fourier transform MR imaging.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Respiratory and other regular motions during two-dimensional Fourier transform magnetic resonance imaging produce image artifacts consisting of local blurring and more or less regularly spaced "ghost" images propagating along the direction of the phase-encoding magnetic field gradient. The patterns of these ghost artifacts can be understood in terms of the technique of image production and basic properties of the discrete Fourier transform. This understanding permits, without respiratory gating, production of images of improved quality in body regions in which there is significant respiratory motion. In particular, the ghosts can be maximally separated from the primary image by choosing intervals between phase-encoding gradient pulse increments that are equal to one-half the respiratory period; they can be minimally separated by choosing an interval equal to the respiratory period. Increasing the number of signal averages between each phase-encoding increment decreases the intensity of the ghosts.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Axel, L; Summers, RM; Kressel, HY; Charles, C

Published Date

  • September 1986

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 160 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 795 - 801

PubMed ID

  • 3737920

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0033-8419

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1148/radiology.160.3.3737920


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States