Use of echocardiography in the diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis.
The first use of echocardiography in infective endocarditis (IE) was described in 1973. Since then, echocardiography has emerged as a major tool for the diagnosis and management of this disease. In general, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is adequate for diagnosing IE in cases where cardiac structures-of-interest are well visualized. Specific situations where transesophageal echocardiography is preferred over TTE include the presence of a prosthetic device, suspected periannular complications, children with complex congenital cardiac lesions, selected patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, and certain pre-existing valvular abnormalities that make TTE interpretation problematic (eg, calcific aortic stenosis). Echocardiography is also useful for risk stratification. Evidence suggests that vegetation size can predict embolic complications, although the data are inconsistent. Careful clinical assessment is essential to the proper use of echocardiography in diagnosing IE, visualizing complications related to IE, and evaluating candidacy for surgical intervention.
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)