Combining forecasts: A review and annotated bibliography
Considerable literature has accumulated over the years regarding the combination of forecasts. The primary conclusion of this line of research is that forecast accuracy can be substantially improved through the combination of multiple individual forecasts. Furthermore, simple combination methods often work reasonably well relative to more complex combinations. This paper provides a review and annotated bibliography of that literature, including contributions from the forecasting, psychology, statistics, and management science literatures. The objectives are to provide a guide to the literature for students and researchers and to help researchers locate contributions in specific areas, both theoretical and applied. Suggestions for future research directions include (1) examination of simple combining approaches to determine reasons for their robustness, (2) development of alternative uses of multiple forecasts in order to make better use of the information they contain, (3) use of combined forecasts as benchmarks for forecast evaluation, and (4) study of subjective combination procedures. Finally, combining forecasts should become part of the mainstream of forecasting practice. In order to achieve this, practitioners should be encouraged to combine forecasts, and software to produce combined forecasts easily should be made available. © 1990.
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