Sampling of the NMR time domain along concentric rings.
We present a novel approach to sampling the NMR time domain, whereby the sampling points are aligned on concentric rings, which we term concentric ring sampling (CRS). Radial sampling constitutes a special case of CRS where each ring has the same number of points and the same relative orientation. We derive theoretically that the most efficient CRS approach is to place progressively more points on rings of larger radius, with the number of points growing linearly with the radius, a method that we call linearly increasing CRS (LCRS). For cases of significant undersampling to reduce measurement time, a randomized LCRS (RLCRS) is also described. A theoretical treatment of these approaches is provided, including an assessment of artifacts and sensitivity. The analytical treatment of sensitivity also addresses the sensitivity of radially sampled data processed by Fourier transform. Optimized CRS approaches are found to produce artifact-free spectra of the same resolution as Cartesian sampling, for the same measurement time. Additionally, optimized approaches consistently yield fewer and smaller artifacts than radial sampling, and have a sensitivity equal to Cartesian and better than radial sampling. We demonstrate the method using numerical simulations, as well as a 3D HNCO experiment on protein G B1 domain.
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