The impact of Tourette Syndrome in adults: results from the Tourette Syndrome impact survey.
Chronic tic disorders (CTD) are characterized by motor and/or vocal tics. Existing data on the impact of tics in adulthood is limited by small, treatment-seeking samples or by data aggregated across adults and children. The current study explored the functional impact of tics in adults using a nationwide sample of 672 participants with a self-reported CTD. The impact of tics on physical, social, occupational/academic, and psychological functioning was assessed. Results suggested mild to moderate functional impairment and positive correlations between impairment and tic severity. Notable portions of the sample reported social or public avoidance and experiences of discrimination resulting from tics. Compared to previously reported population norms, participants had more psychological difficulties, greater disability, and lower quality of life. The current study suggests that CTDs can adversely impact functioning in adults and highlights the need for clinical interventions and systemic efforts to address tic-related impairments.
Conelea, CA; Woods, DW; Zinner, SH; Budman, CL; Murphy, TK; Scahill, LD; Compton, SN; Walkup, JT
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