The genetic and environmental contributions to oppositional defiant behavior: a multi-informant twin study.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the genetic and environmental contributions to oppositional defiant behavior (ODB) from mother, father, and teacher report using the Conners Revised Short Forms in a large twin sample. METHOD: ODB data were collected from 1,595 mothers, 1,114 fathers, and 793 teachers of 7-year-old twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Registry in the 1990-1992 cohort with an 80% response rate. Models were fit for each informant to determine the genetic, environmental, gender, and informant influences on ODB. RESULTS: Genetic analyses of the ODB quantitative scale showed additive genetic (A) by mother (55%), by father (57%), and by teacher (21% girls, 38% boys) unique environmental (E) (mother, 22%; father, 29%; teacher, 48% girls, 39% boys) and shared environmental (C) (mother, 14%; father, 23%; teacher, 31% girls, 23% boys) influences. CONCLUSIONS: Additive genetic and unique environmental factors account for the majority of the influences on ODB for boys and girls by all informants.
Hudziak, JJ; Derks, EM; Althoff, RR; Copeland, W; Boomsma, DI
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