Redox potentials of Ti(IV) and Fe(III) complexes provide insights into titanium biodistribution mechanisms.
Transferrin, the human iron transport protein, binds Ti(IV) even more tightly than it binds Fe(III). However, the fate of titanium bound to transferrin is not well understood. Here we present results which address the fate of titanium once bound to transferrin. We have determined the redox potentials for a series of Ti(IV) complexes and have used these data to develop a linear free energy relationship (LFER) correlating Ti(IV) <==> Ti(III) redox processes with Fe(III) <==> Fe(II) redox processes. This LFER enables us to compare the redox potentials of Fe(III) complexes and Ti(IV) complexes that mimic the active site of transferrin and allows us to predict the redox potential of titanium-transferrin. Using cyclic voltammetry and discontinuous metalloprotein spectroelectrochemistry (dSEC) in conjunction with the LFER, we report that the redox potential of titanium-transferrin is lower than -600 mV (lower than that of iron-transferrin) and is predicted to be ca. -900 mV vs. NHE (normal hydrogen electrode). We conclude that Ti(IV)/Ti(III) reduction in titanium-transferrin is not accessible by biological reducing agents. This observation is discussed in the context of current hypotheses concerning the role of reduction in transferrin mediated iron transport.
Parker Siburt, CJ; Lin, EM; Brandt, SJ; Tinoco, AD; Valentine, AM; Crumbliss, AL
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