Iron chelation equilibria, redox, and siderophore activity of a saccharide platform ferrichrome analogue.
A complete characterization of the aqueous solution Fe(III) and Fe(II) coordination chemistry of a saccharide-based ferrichrome analogue, 1-O-methyl-2,3,6-tris-O-[4-(N-hydroxy-N-ethylcarbamoyl)-n-butyryl]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (H3LN236), is reported including relevant thermodynamic parameters and growth promotion activity with respect to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains. The saccharide platform is an attractive backbone for the design and synthesis of ferrichrome analogues because of its improved water solubility and hydrogen-bonding capabilities, which can potentially provide favorable receptor recognition and biological activity. The ligand deprotonation constants (pKa values), iron complex (FeIII(LN236) and FeII(LN236)1-) protonation constants (KFeHxL-236-N), overall Fe(III) and Fe(II) chelation constants (beta110), and aqueous solution speciation were determined by spectrophotometric and potentiometric titrations, EDTA competition equilibria, and cyclic voltammetry. Log betaIII110 = 31.16 and pFe = 26.1 for FeIII(LN236) suggests a high affinity for Fe(III), which is comparable to or greater than ferrichrome and other ferrichrome analogues. The E1/2 for the FeIII(LN236)/FeII(LN236)1- couple was determined to be -454 mV (vs NHE) from quasi-reversible cyclic voltammograms at pH 9. Below pH 6.5, the E1/2 shifts to more positive values and the pH-dependent E1/2 profile was used to determine the FeII(LN236)1- protonation constants and overall stability constant log betaII110 = 11.1. A comparative analysis of similar data for an Fe(III) complex of a structural isomer of this exocyclic saccharide chelator (H3LR234), including strain energy calculations, allows us to analyze the relative effects of the pendant arm position and hydroxamate moiety orientation (normal vs retro) on overall complex stability. A correlation between siderophore activity and iron coordination chemistry of these saccharide-hydroxamate chelators is made.
Dhungana, S; Harrington, JM; Gebhardt, P; Möllmann, U; Crumbliss, AL
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