Allelopathy in spatially distributed populations
In a homogeneously mixing population of E. coli, colicin-producing and colicin-sensitive strategies both may be evolutionarily stable for certain parameter ranges, with the outcome of competition determined by initial conditions. In contrast, in a spatially-structured population, there is a unique ESS for any given set of parameters; the outcome is determined by how effective allelopathy is in relation to its costs. Furthermore, in a spatially-structured environment, a dynamic equilibrium may be sustained among a colicin-sensitive type, a high colicin-producing type, and a 'cheater' that expends less on colicin production but is resistant.
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