Impact of oropharyngeal dysphagia on long-term outcomes of lung transplantation.
BACKGROUND: Lung transplantation, definitive therapy for end-stage lung disease, is limited long-term by allograft dysfunction including bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Few modifiable risk factors for pulmonary transplant-related mortality are recognized. However, oropharyngeal dysphagia frequently occurs after thoracic surgical procedures, including lung transplantation, and increases morbidity. We evaluated the impact of oropharyngeal dysphagia on survival and BOS after lung transplantation. METHODS: A total of 263 consecutive lung transplant patients were reviewed. Each underwent clinical swallowing evaluation early after surgery; 149 patients underwent additional fiberoptic or videofluoroscopic swallowing evaluation (SE). Results of SE were correlated with BOS, defined by accepted criteria, and mortality using Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Cox proportional hazard modeling assessed preoperative and postoperative variables associated with development of BOS and mortality. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 920 ± 560 days. The SE identified tracheal aspiration and (or) laryngeal penetration in 70.5%. Preoperative tobacco abuse, gastroesophageal reflux, and cardiopulmonary bypass independently predicted oropharyngeal dysphagia. Peak FEV(1) (forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration) alone independently predicted BOS (hazard ratio 0.98; confidence interval 0.975 to 0.992, p < 0.0001); oropharyngeal dysphagia was not associated with BOS. Independent predictors of mortality by multivariable analysis were ventilator dependence (p = 0.038) and peak FEV(1) (p < 0.0001); normal SE was associated with improved survival (hazard ratio 0.13; confidence interval 0.03 to 0.54, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Oropharyngeal dysphagia, often overlooked on clinical examination, is common after lung transplantation. Normal deglutition may improve survival after lung transplantation, but oropharyngeal dysphagia does not independently affect BOS. Institution of protocols aimed at identifying previously unrecognized dysphagia may improve results of pulmonary transplantation.
Atkins, BZ; Petersen, RP; Daneshmand, MA; Turek, JW; Lin, SS; Davis, RD
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