Lesser toe deformities.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Lesser toe deformities are caused by alterations in normal anatomy that create an imbalance between the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. Causes include improper shoe wear, trauma, genetics, inflammatory arthritis, and neuromuscular and metabolic diseases. Typical deformities include mallet toe, hammer toe, claw toe, curly toe, and crossover toe. Abnormalities associated with the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints include hallux valgus of the first MTP joint and instability of the lesser MTP joints, especially the second toe. Midfoot and hindfoot deformities (eg, cavus foot, varus hindfoot, valgus hindfoot with forefoot pronation) may be present, as well. Nonsurgical management focuses on relieving pressure and correcting deformity with various appliances. Surgical management is reserved for patients who fail nonsurgical treatment. Options include soft-tissue correction (eg, tendon transfer) as well as bony procedures (eg, joint resection, fusion, metatarsal shortening), or a combination of techniques.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Shirzad, K; Kiesau, CD; DeOrio, JK; Parekh, SG

Published Date

  • August 2011

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 19 / 8

Start / End Page

  • 505 - 514

PubMed ID

  • 21807918

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1067-151X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.5435/00124635-201108000-00006


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States