Nitro-oleic acid, a novel and irreversible inhibitor of xanthine oxidoreductase.
Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) generates proinflammatory oxidants and secondary nitrating species, with inhibition of XOR proving beneficial in a variety of disorders. Electrophilic nitrated fatty acid derivatives, such as nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2), display anti-inflammatory effects with pleiotropic properties. Nitro-oleic acid inhibits XOR activity in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 of 0.6 microM, limiting both purine oxidation and formation of superoxide (O2.). Enzyme inhibition by OA-NO2 is not reversed by thiol reagents, including glutathione, beta-mercaptoethanol, and dithiothreitol. Structure-function studies indicate that the carboxylic acid moiety, nitration at the 9 or 10 olefinic carbon, and unsaturation is required for XOR inhibition. Enzyme turnover and competitive reactivation studies reveal inhibition of electron transfer reactions at the molybdenum cofactor accounts for OA-NO2-induced inhibition. Importantly, OA-NO2 more potently inhibits cell-associated XOR-dependent O2. production than does allopurinol. Combined, these data establish a novel role for OA-NO2 in the inhibition of XOR-derived oxidant formation.
Kelley, EE; Batthyany, CI; Hundley, NJ; Woodcock, SR; Bonacci, G; Del Rio, JM; Schopfer, FJ; Lancaster, JR; Freeman, BA; Tarpey, MM
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