Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription by chemical cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk's) have recently been suggested to regulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription. Previously, we have shown that expression of one cdk inhibitor, p21/Waf1, is abrogated in HIV-1 latently infected cells. Based on this result, we investigated the transcription of HIV-1 in the presence of chemical drugs that specifically inhibited cdk activity and functionally mimicked p21/Waf1 activity. HIV-1 production in virally integrated lymphocytic and monocytic cell lines, such as ACH(2), 8E5, and U1, as well as activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with syncytium-inducing (SI) or non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) HIV-1 strains, were all inhibited by Roscovitine, a purine derivative that reversibly competes for the ATP binding site present in cdk's. The decrease in viral progeny in the HIV-1-infected cells was correlated with a decrease in the transcription of HIV-1 RNAs in cells treated with Roscovitine and not with the non-cdk general cell cycle inhibitors, such as hydroxyurea (G(1)/S blocker) or nocodazole (M-phase blocker). Cyclin A- and E-associated histone H1 kinases, as well as cdk 7 and 9 activities, were all inhibited in the presence of Roscovitine. The 50% inhibitory concentration of Roscovitine on cdk's 9 and 7 was determined to be approximately 0.6 microM. Roscovitine could selectively sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to apoptosis at concentrations that did not impede the growth and proliferation of uninfected cells. Apoptosis induced by Roscovitine was found in both latent and activated infected cells, as evident by Annexin V staining and the cleavage of the PARP protein by caspase-3. More importantly, contrary to many apoptosis-inducing agents, where the apoptosis of HIV-1-infected cells accompanies production and release of infectious HIV-1 viral particles, Roscovitine treatment selectively killed HIV-1-infected cells without virion release. Collectively, our data suggest that cdk's are required for efficient HIV-1 transcription and, therefore, we propose specific cdk inhibitors as potential antiviral agents in the treatment of AIDS.
Wang, D; de la Fuente, C; Deng, L; Wang, L; Zilberman, I; Eadie, C; Healey, M; Stein, D; Denny, T; Harrison, LE; Meijer, L; Kashanchi, F
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)