Loss of G(1)/S checkpoint in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected cells is associated with a lack of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/Waf1.
Productive high-titer infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires the activation of target cells. Infection of quiescent peripheral CD4 lymphocytes by HIV-1 results in incomplete, labile reverse transcripts and lack of viral progeny formation. An interplay between Tat and p53 has previously been reported, where Tat inhibited the transcription of the p53 gene, which may aid in the development of AIDS-related malignancies, and p53 expression inhibited HIV-1 long terminal repeat transcription. Here, by using a well-defined and -characterized stress signal, gamma irradiation, we find that upon gamma irradiation, HIV-1-infected cells lose their G(1)/S checkpoints, enter the S phase inappropriately, and eventually apoptose. The loss of the G(1)/S checkpoint is associated with a loss of p21/Waf1 protein and increased activity of a major G(1)/S kinase, namely, cyclin E/cdk2. The p21/Waf1 protein, a known cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, interacts with the cdk2/cyclin E complex and inhibits progression of cells into S phase. We find that loss of the G(1)/S checkpoint in HIV-1-infected cells may in part be due to Tat's ability to bind p53 (a known activator of the p21/Waf1 promoter) and sequester its transactivation activity, as seen in both in vivo and in vitro transcription assays. The loss of p21/Waf1 in HIV-1-infected cells was specific to p21/Waf1 and did not occur with other KIP family members, such as p27 (KIP1) and p57 (KIP2). Finally, the advantage of a loss of the G(1)/S checkpoint for HIV-1 per se may be that it pushes the host cell into the S phase, which may then allow subsequent virus-associated processes, such as RNA splicing, transport, translation, and packaging of virion-specific genes, to occur.
Clark, E; Santiago, F; Deng, L; Chong, S; de La Fuente, C; Wang, L; Fu, P; Stein, D; Denny, T; Lanka, V; Mozafari, F; Okamoto, T; Kashanchi, F
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)