An examination of differences in variables maintaining smoking behavior in adult smokers with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) smoke cigarettes at higher rates and have greater difficulty quitting than their non-diagnosed peers. This study examined differences between smokers with and without ADHD on a range of smoking-related variables. Twenty-two subjects with ADHD and 22 controls completed self-report measures of withdrawal symptoms, smoking motivation, sensory experience of smoking, and positive and negative affect. Compared to control smokers, smokers with ADHD reported greater craving and negative affect; perceived smoking as providing greater enhancement of concentration and alertness, as more calming, and as providing a greater decrease in irritability; found cigarette puffs to be more enjoyable and satisfying; and rated smoking as providing greater positive and negative reinforcement and greater cognitive enhancement. Women with ADHD reported the greatest effects of smoking on improving concentration and reducing irritability. Findings support the hypothesis that smokers with ADHD may experience smoking differently than smokers without the disorder, and that they may identify different motivations for smoking.
Van Voorhees, E; McClernon, FJ; Fuemmeler, B; English, J; Holdaway, A; Hallyburton, M; Dew, R; Kollins, S
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