Glutathione-mediated chlorothalonil detoxification in channel catfish gills
Maintenance of the glutathione (GSH) pathway is critical in guarding against the toxic effects of a variety of pollutants. However, despite their importance as an initial line of defense against waterborne toxicants, little is known regarding the role of fish gills in GSH-mediated xenobiotic metabolism. In these studies, the role of channel catfish gills in the detoxification of 2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile (chlorothalonil), an electrophilic fungicide, was examined. Chlorothalonil was metabolized in vitro by gill cytosolic and microsomal glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Chlorothalonil metabolism by cytosolic fructions was reduced markedly when GSH was omitted from reaction mixtures. Microsomal metabolism of chlorothalonil did not occur in the absence of GSH and in the presence of an NADPH-regenerating system lacking GSH. Channel catfish exposed in vivo to chlorothalonil had increased gill GSH and cysteine concentrations after 72 h exposure, and increased gill gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) activity at 144 h of exposure. Our results show that the gills play an important role in the metabolism and detoxification of chlorothalonil in the channel catfish. Catfish can maintain elevated gill GSH concentrations in the presence of chlorothalonil by increasing gill cysteine concentrations. © 1992.
Gallagher, EP; Di Giulio, RT
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