Glutathione S-transferase-mediated chlorothalonil metabolism in liver and gill subcellular fractions of channel catfish.
Chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) is a broad spectrum fungicide that is a potent acute toxicant to fish. Therefore, the metabolism of chlorothalonil was investigated in liver and gill cytosolic and microsomal fractions from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) using HPLC. All fractions catalyzed the metabolism of chlorothalonil to polar metabolites. Chlorothalonil metabolism by cytosolic fractions was reduced markedly when glutathione (GSH) was omitted from the reaction mixtures. The lack of microsomal metabolism in the presence of either NADPH or an NADPH-regenerating system indicated direct glutathione S-transferase (GST)-catalyzed conjugation with GSH without prior oxidation by cytochrome P450. Cytosolic and microsomal GSTs from both tissues were also active toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), a commonly employed reference substrate. In summary, channel catfish detoxified chlorothalonil in vitro by GST-catalyzed GSH conjugation in the liver and gill. The present report is the first to confirm microsomal GST activity toward CDNB in gill and toward chlorothalonil in liver, and also of gill cytosolic GST activity towards chlorothalonil, in an aquatic species.
Gallagher, EP; Kedderis, GL; Di Giulio, RT
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