Hodgkin's disease treated with neck radiation is associated with increased antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against human extraocular muscle cells.
Patients with Hodgkin's disease have higher a prevalence of thyroid function abnormalities and, perhaps, orbitopathy than the general population, but the pathophysiology of this association and its relationship to Hodgkin's disease treatment remain unclear. We analyzed the frequency of thyroid function abnormalities, autoantibodies against thyroid antigens, and autoimmunity against extraocular muscle cell antigens by Western blot analyses and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays in patients with Hodgkin's disease (n = 20) and controls (n = 10). Hodgkin's disease patients were subdivided into those treated with thyroidal external beam radiation therapy (XRT, n = 15) or chemotherapy (MOPP/ABVD, n = 5). The ADCC assay against extraocular muscle cells was increased in patients with Hodgkin's disease (5.5% vs. <1.0%, p = .026) when compared with controls. In addition, Hodgkin's disease patients treated with XRT (with or without chemotherapy) had significantly higher ADCC tests than controls (9.7% vs. <1.0%, p = .010), In contrast, ADCC assays were not different between Hodgkin's disease patients treated with chemotherapy alone and controls (<1.0% vs. <1.0%, p = .53). Hodgkin's patients treated with XRT had higher ADCC assays than those treated with chemotherapy alone (p = .087), although this difference did not achieve statistical significance. Serum measurements of antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, antithyroglobulin (Tg) antibodies, thyroid binding inhibitory immunoglobulins (TBII), and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) were similar in all groups. Antibodies against the 64 kDa orbital antigen were detected in 1 patient and 1 control subject. Excluding patients already treated with L-thyroxine for hypothyroidism (n = 5), free T3, but not free T4, was lower in the Hodgkin's disease group than in controls (2.2 pg/mL vs. 2.7 pg/mL, p = .008). Thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations were not statistically different between these groups. In summary, these data show: (1) ADCC against human orbital muscle cells is increased in patients with Hodgkin's disease compared with controls: (2) these differences were noted among Hodgkin's disease patients treated with thyroidal XRT, with or without chemotherapy, and not among those patients treated with chemotherapy alone; and (3) no statistically significant differences in the frequency of thyroid autoantibodies were found. These data suggest that patients with Hodgkin's disease display altered antibody-dependent immune function toward extraocular muscle cells that may possibly be related to by XRT. Larger, prospective studies assessing thyroid and orbital-related immunologic abnormalities in Hodgkin's disease are warranted.
Ringel, MD; Taylor, T; Barsouk, A; Wall, JR; Freter, CE; Howard, RS; Diehl, L; Burman, KD
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