Antifungal prophylaxis in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a frequent, costly and potentially life-threatening complication in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Most prevalent among the causative pathogens are Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. Risk factors that further increase the risk of IFIs in this patient population include allogeneic transplant and acute graft versus host disease. Among strategies to improve outcomes is the administration of antifungal prophylaxis. However, optimal administration requires the identification of patients who are at the highest risk of developing a fungal infection, thus restricting concerns of drug cost, toxicity and resistance to those most likely to benefit. Currently, there are several antifungal agents recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network for the prophylaxis of IFIs. These include fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and micafungin. Fluconazole was widely considered the standard agent for prophylaxis in patients at lower risk of mold infections. New data support the efficacy of the newer triazole posaconazole and the echinocandin micafungin in this patient population..
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