Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of voriconazole in immunocompromised children.
The pharmacokinetics of voriconazole in children receiving 4 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.) demonstrate substantially lower plasma exposures (as defined by area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]) than those in adults receiving the same therapeutic dosage. These differences in pharmacokinetics between children and adults limit accurate prediction of pediatric voriconazole exposure based on adult dosages. We therefore studied the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of higher dosages of an i.v.-to-oral regimen of voriconazole in immunocompromised children aged 2 to <12 years in two dosage cohorts for the prevention of invasive fungal infections. The first cohort received 4 mg/kg i.v. every 12 h (q12h), then 6 mg/kg i.v. q12h, and then 4 mg/kg orally (p.o.) q12h; the second received 6 mg/kg i.v. q12h, then 8 mg/kg i.v. q12h, and then 6 mg/kg p.o. q12h. The mean values for the AUC over the dosing interval (AUCτ) for 4 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg i.v. in cohort 1 were 11,827 and 22,914 ng.h/ml, respectively, whereas the mean AUCτ values for 6 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg i.v. in cohort 2 were 17,249 and 29,776 ng.h/ml, respectively. High interpatient variability was observed. The bioavailability of the oral formulation in children was approximately 65%. The safety profiles were similar in the two cohorts and age groups. The most common treatment-related adverse event was increased gamma glutamyl transpeptidase levels. There was no correlation between adverse events and voriconazole exposure. In summary, voriconazole was tolerated to a similar degree regardless of dosage and age; the mean plasma AUCτ for 8 mg/kg i.v. in children approached that for 4 mg/kg i.v. in adults, thus representing a rationally selected dosage for the pediatric population.
Walsh, TJ; Driscoll, T; Milligan, PA; Wood, ND; Schlamm, H; Groll, AH; Jafri, H; Arrieta, AC; Klein, NJ; Lutsar, I
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