Clustering and heritability of insulin resistance in Chinese and Japanese hypertensive families: a Stanford-Asian Pacific Program in Hypertension and Insulin Resistance sibling study.
The clustering between hypertension and other metabolic abnormalities related to insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) has been investigated in cross-sectional and prospective studies. Offspring studies have revealed that the clustering characteristics of IRS have familial components. However, it is not known whether the clustering also occurs in siblings (sibs) with different levels of blood pressure (BP). In addition, the genetic susceptibility accounting for the clustering in hypertensive families has not been determined. Siblings with Japanese or Chinese ancestry and having either similar BP levels (concordant sibs) or different BP levels (discordant sibs) were recruited. The delta method and variance component model were applied to analyze the differences in metabolic variables between hypertension (HTN) and low BP (LBP) sibs, and to compute the polygenic heritabilities for these metabolic variables and insulin sensitivity. After adjustment for age, gender and body mass index (BMI), HTN (n=393) sibs had higher levels of triglyceride (p < 0.0001), VLDL-cholesterol (p<0.0001), fasting insulin (p < 0.05), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAir) (p < 0.05) than LBP sibs (n = 389), but there were no differences in fasting glucose or high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. The HTN sibs also had higher plasma glucose and insulin levels at 2 h after 75 g oral glucose loading (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). The heritability estimates for fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMAir were 0.58, 0.43 and 0.46, respectively; for triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, and BMI they were 0.60, 0.63 and 0.54, respectively. In hypertensive families, sibs with extreme levels of BP have significant differences in IRS-associated metabolic variables. The clustering characteristics and the significance of heritability estimation for these metabolic variables indicate that IRS is familial in nature and heritable in Chinese and Japanese hypertensive families.
Wu, K-D; Hsiao, C-F; Ho, L-T; Sheu, WH-H; Pei, D; Chuang, L-M; Curb, D; Chen, Y-DI; Tsai, H-J; Dzau, VJ; Cox, D; Tai, T-Y
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