Interferon regulatory factor-1 up-regulates angiotensin II type 2 receptor and induces apoptosis.
The expression of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor is developmentally and growth regulated. In cultured R3T3 cells, expression of this receptor is markedly induced at the confluent state and with serum deprivation. In this study we demonstrated that the removal of serum from culture media resulted in the induction of apoptosis in these cells and the addition of angiotensin II further enhanced apoptosis. We have previously identified an interferon regulatory factor (IRF) binding motif in the mouse AT2 receptor gene promoter region. In this report, we observed that serum removal increased IRF-1 expression, with a rapid and transient decrease of IRF-2. To prove that the changes in IRFs after serum removal mediated apoptosis and up-regulated AT2 receptor, we transfected antisense oligonucleotides for IRF-1 or IRF-2 into R3T3 cells and observed that IRF-1 antisense oligonucleotide attenuated apoptosis and abolished the up-regulation of AT2 receptor. IRF-2 antisense oligonucleotide pretreatment did not affect the onset of apoptosis after serum removal; instead, it increased AT2 receptor binding and enhanced angiotensin II-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that increased IRF-1 after serum starvation contributes to the induction of apoptosis and that increased IRF-1 up-regulates the AT2 receptor expression after serum starvation, resulting in enhanced angiotensin II-mediated apoptosis.
Horiuchi, M; Yamada, T; Hayashida, W; Dzau, VJ
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