Processive and nonprocessive models of kinesin movement.
Conventional kinesin is the prototypic member of a family of diverse proteins that use the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis to generate force and move along microtubules. These proteins, which are involved in a wide range of cellular functions, have been identified in protozoa, fungi, plants, and animals and possess a high degree of sequence conservation among species in their motor domains. The biochemical properties of kinesin and its homologues, in conjunction with the recently solved three-dimensional structures of several kinesin motors, have contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of kinesin movement along microtubules. We discuss several models for movement, including the hand-over-hand, inchworm, and biased diffusion models of processive movement, as well as models of nonprocessive movement.
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