Self-phase modulation and two-photon absorption imaging of cells and active neurons

Conference Paper

Even though multi-photon fluorescence microscopy offers higher resolution and better penetration depth than traditional fluorescence microscopy, its use is restricted to the detection of molecules that fluoresce. Two-photon absorption (TPA) imaging can provide contrast in non-fluorescent molecules while retaining the high resolution and sectioning capabilities of nonlinear imaging modalities. In the long-wavelength water window, tissue TPA is dominated by the endogenous molecules melanin and hemoglobin with an almost complete absence of endogenous two-photon fluorescence. A complementary nonlinear contrast mechanism is self-phase modulation (SPM), which can provide intrinsic signatures that can depend on local tissue anisotropy, chemical environment, or other structural properties. We have developed a spectral hole refilling measurement technique for TPA and SPM measurements using shaped ultrafast laser pulses. Here we report on a microscopy setup to simultaneously acquire 3D, high-resolution TPA and SPM images. We have acquired data in mounted B16 melanoma cells with very modest laser power levels. We will also discuss the possible application of this measurement technique to neuronal imaging. Since SPM is sensitive to material structure we can expect SPM properties of neurons to change during neuronal firing. Using our hole-refilling technique we have now demonstrated strong novel intrinsic nonlinear signatures of neuronal activation in a hippocampal brain slice. The observed changes in nonlinear signal upon collective activation were up to factors of two, unlike other intrinsic optical signal changes on the percent level. These results show that TPA and SPM imaging can provide important novel functional contrast in tissue using very modest power levels suitable for in vivo applications.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Fischer, MC; Liu, H; Piletic, IR; Ye, T; Yasuda, R; Warren, WS

Published Date

  • September 3, 2007

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 6442 /

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1605-7422

International Standard Book Number 10 (ISBN-10)

  • 0819465550

International Standard Book Number 13 (ISBN-13)

  • 9780819465559

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1117/12.698693

Citation Source

  • Scopus