PSA in the new millennium: a powerful predictor of prostate cancer prognosis and radical prostatectomy outcomes--results from the SEARCH database.
OBJECTIVES: As a result of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, most men today with prostate cancer present with localized disease and serum PSA values < 10 ng/ml. Within this context, it is debated whether PSA remains an important prognostic variable in more recently treated patients. We examined the prognostic significance of preoperative PSA to predict pathologic stage and biochemical progression among men undergoing radical prostatectomy in the new millennium (2000-2006). METHODS: We performed a review of 925 men with prostate cancer treated by radical prostatectomy since 2000 within the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database. We examined the association between preoperative PSA and risk of adverse pathologic features and biochemical progression using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: After adjusting for multiple clinical preoperative characteristics, higher preoperative PSA values were associated with increased odds of extracapsular extension (p<0.001), positive surgical margins (p<0.001), and seminal vesicle invasion (p<0.001) and increased risk of biochemical progression (p=0.009). When the analyses were limited to the 690 men with a preoperative PSA<10 ng/ml and after adjusting for multiple clinical characteristics, higher preoperative PSA values remained associated with increased risk of biochemical progression (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.28, p=0.002). Even among the 448 men with a PSA<10 ng/ml and clinical stage T1c disease, preoperative PSA was associated with increased risk of biochemical progression (HR 1.14, 95%CI 1.00-1.31, p=0.047). CONCLUSIONS: PSA remains an important prognostic marker among men diagnosed with prostate cancer in the new millennium treated with radical prostatectomy and remains an important predictor of outcome even among men with preoperative PSA level < 10 ng/ml.
Freedland, SJ; Hotaling, JM; Fitzsimons, NJ; Presti, JC; Kane, CJ; Terris, MK; Aronson, WJ; Amling, CL
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