Body mass index, weight change, and risk of prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been associated with aggressive prostate cancer. The extent of this association, which varies by stage and grade, remains unclear. The role of recent weight change had not been previously examined. METHODS: We examined body mass index (BMI) and weight change in relation to incident prostate cancer by disease stage and grade at diagnosis among 69,991 men in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Participants provided information on height and weight in 1982, and again at enrollment in 1992. During follow-up through June 30, 2003 (excluding the first 2 years of follow-up), we documented 5,252 incident prostate cancers. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: The association between BMI in 1992 and risk of prostate cancer differed by stage and grade at diagnosis. BMI was inversely associated with risk of nonmetastatic low-grade prostate cancer (RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.66-1.06), but BMI was positively associated with risk of nonmetastatic high-grade prostate cancer (RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.96-1.55) and risk of metastatic or fatal prostate cancer (RR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.06-2.23). Compared with weight maintenance, men who lost >11 pounds between 1982 and 1992 were at a decreased risk of nonmetastatic high-grade prostate cancer (RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42-0.79). CONCLUSION: Obesity increases the risk of more aggressive prostate cancer and may decrease either the occurrence or the likelihood of diagnosis of less-aggressive tumors. Men who lose weight may reduce their risk of prostate cancer.
Rodriguez, C; Freedland, SJ; Deka, A; Jacobs, EJ; McCullough, ML; Patel, AV; Thun, MJ; Calle, EE
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