Identification of a W variant outbreak of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via population-based molecular epidemiology.
CONTEXT: Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis could provide a more sensitive means of identifying outbreaks than use of conventional surveillance techniques alone. Variants of the New York City W strain of M tuberculosis were identified in New Jersey. OBJECTIVE: To describe the spread of the W family of M tuberculosis strains in New Jersey identified by molecular typing and surveillance data. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: All incident culture-positive tuberculosis cases reported in New Jersey from January 1996 to September 1998, for which the W family was defined by insertion sequence (IS) IS6110 DNA fingerprinting, polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) typing, spacer oligotyping (spoligotyping), and variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Identification and characterization of W family clones supplemented by surveillance data. RESULTS: Isolates from 1207 cases were analyzed, of which 68 isolates (6%) belonged to the W family based on IS6110 and spoligotype hybridization patterns. The IS6110 hybridization patterns or fingerprints revealed that43 patients (designated group A) shared a unique banding motif not present in other W family isolates. Strains collected from the remaining 25 patients (designated group B), while related to W, displayed a variety of IS6110 patterns and did not share this motif. The PGRS and VNTR typing confirmed the division of the W family into groups A and B and again showed group A strains to be closely related and group B strains to be more diverse. The demographic characteristics of individuals from groups A and B were specific and defined. Group A patients were more likely than group B patients to be US born (91 % vs 24%, P<.001), black (76% vs 16%, P<.001), human immunodeficiency virus positive (40% vs 0%, P = .007), and residents of urban northeast New Jersey counties (P<.001). Patients with group B strains were primarily non-US born, of Asian descent, and more dispersed throughout New Jersey. No outbreak had been detected using conventional surveillance alone. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of multiple molecular techniques in conjunction with surveillance data enabled us to identify a previously undetected outbreak in a defined geographical setting. The outbreak isolates comprise members of a distinct branch of the W family phylogenetic lineage. The use of molecular strain typing provides a proactive approach that may be used to initiate, and not just augment, traditional surveillance outbreak investigations.
Bifani, PJ; Mathema, B; Liu, Z; Moghazeh, SL; Shopsin, B; Tempalski, B; Driscol, J; Frothingham, R; Musser, JM; Alcabes, P; Kreiswirth, BN
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