Bortezomib, dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide and lenalidomide combination for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: phase 1 results from the multicenter EVOLUTION study.
This phase 1 study (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00507442) was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of cyclophosphamide in combination with bortezomib, dexamethasone and lenalidomide (VDCR) and to assess the safety and efficacy of this combination in untreated multiple myeloma patients. Cohorts of three to six patients received a cyclophosphamide dosage of 100, 200, 300, 400 or 500 mg/m(2) (on days 1 and 8) plus bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) (on days 1, 4, 8 and 11), dexamethasone 40 mg (on days 1, 8 and 15) and lenalidomide 15 mg (on days 1-14), for eight 21-day induction cycles, followed by four 42-day maintenance cycles (bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2), on days 1, 8, 15 and 22). The MTD was the cyclophosphamide dose below which more than one of six patients experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT). Twenty-five patients were treated. Two DLTs were seen, of grade 4 febrile neutropenia (cyclophosphamide 400 mg/m(2)) and grade 4 herpes zoster despite anti-viral prophylaxis (cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m(2)). No cumulative hematological toxicity or thromboembolic episodes were reported. The overall response rate was 96%, including 20% stringent complete response (CR), 40% CR/near-complete response and 68% >or=very good partial response. VDCR is well tolerated and highly active in this population. No MTD was reached; the recommended phase 2 cyclophosphamide dose in VDCR is 500 mg/m(2), which was the highest dose tested.
Kumar, SK; Flinn, I; Noga, SJ; Hari, P; Rifkin, R; Callander, N; Bhandari, M; Wolf, JL; Gasparetto, C; Krishnan, A; Grosman, D; Glass, J; Sahovic, EA; Shi, H; Webb, IJ; Richardson, PG; Rajkumar, SV
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