Mechanical determinants of myocardial oxygen consumption in conscious dogs
A new practical descriptor of metabolic to mechanical myocardial energy transfer (MET), termed the virtual work model, was evaluated in 32 conscious dogs and in 8 isolated canine hearts. An index of total mechanical energy expenditure (TME) was calculated as the sum of external energy (stroke work) and an internal energy index of heat (left ventricular end-diastolic volume times left ventricular mean ejection pressure). Physiological comparison of TME (x-axis) and myocardial oxygen consumption (MV̇O2; y-axis) yielded highly linear MET relationships (mean r = 0.93 ± 0.07), with an average slope of 0.86 ± 0.39 (SD) and a y-intercept of 9.1 ± 6.4 mW/ml myocardium. The linear MV̇O2-TME relationship did not vary under steady-state vs. dynamic vena caval occlusion, increased heart rate, increased afterload, or increased inotropic state with calcium infusion. Compared with five other indexes of myocardial energetics, the virtual work model of MET was the most linear, the most practical in not requiring determination of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, and the most accurate predictor of MV̇O2 under normal and altered hemodynamic conditions.
Elbeery, JR; Lucke, JC; Feneley, MP; Maier, GW; Owen, CH; Lilly, RE; Savitt, MA; Hickey, MSJ; Gall, SA; Davis, JW; Vantrigt, P; Rankin, JS; Glower, DD
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