Efficiency analysis of waveform shape for electrical excitation of nerve fibers.
Stimulation efficiency is an important consideration in the stimulation parameters of implantable neural stimulators. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of waveform shape and duration on the charge, power, and energy efficiency of neural stimulation. Using a population model of mammalian axons and in vivo experiments on cat sciatic nerve, we analyzed the stimulation efficiency of four waveform shapes: square, rising exponential, decaying exponential, and rising ramp. No waveform was simultaneously energy-, charge-, and power-optimal, and differences in efficiency among waveform shapes varied with pulse width (PW). For short PWs (< or = 0.1 ms), square waveforms were no less energy-efficient than exponential waveforms, and the most charge-efficient shape was the ramp. For long PW s (> or = 0.5 ms), the square was the least energy-efficient and charge-efficient shape, but across most PW s, the square was the most power-efficient shape. Rising exponentials provided no practical gains in efficiency over the other shapes, and our results refute previous claims that the rising exponential is the energy-optimal shape. An improved understanding of how stimulation parameters affect stimulation efficiency will help improve the design and programming of implantable stimulators to minimize tissue damage and extend battery life.
Wongsarnpigoon, A; Woock, JP; Grill, WM
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