Adjuvant therapy for intracoronary stents. Investigations in atherosclerotic swine.
Early thrombosis has complicated human stent implantation in several trials. To determine the best anticoagulation/antiplatelet therapy to maintain stent patency after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, we implanted the flexible balloon-expandable coil stent into the left anterior descending coronary artery of 28 atherosclerotic 8-month-old Hanford miniature swine. Animals were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: group A, aspirin (1 mg/kg/day) and dipyridamole (1 mg/kg three times a day); group B, aspirin and dipyridamole (same doses) plus Coumadin (dose required to prolong prothrombin time 1.3-1.5-fold that of normal); and group C, control. Adjuvant therapy was begun 3 days before stenting. Two pigs (one from group A and one from group B) died during implantation, both without thrombosis. Twenty-six animals survived until follow-up angiography and sacrifice at 1 month. No occlusive thrombosis of the stent occurred in survivors. Reduction of the stent lumen diameter was observed in every case at follow-up. Percent lumen reduction was 19% in group A, 26% in group B, and 24% in group C. Marked smooth muscle cell hyperplasia was seen by light and transmission electron microscopy at stent struts. Scanning electron microscopy of the luminal surface showed a variable morphology consisting of normal endothelium, adherent leukocytes, stellate periluminal cells, and occasional fibrin strands and red blood cells. Luminal narrowing was not affected by anticoagulation therapy, antiplatelet drugs, cholesterol level, or stent sizing. We conclude that occlusive thrombosis does not complicate stent implantation in this model but that substantial luminal narrowing due in part to smooth muscle hyperplasia does occur. The significance of luminal narrowing at the stent site requires further study.
Rodgers, GP; Minor, ST; Robinson, K; Cromeens, D; Woolbert, SC; Stephens, LC; Guyton, JR; Wright, K; Roubin, GS; Raizner, AE
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