Microemulsions of cholesteryl oleate and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: a model for cholesteryl ester rich very low density lipoproteins.
This study describes the preparation, purification, and characterization of a cholesteryl oleate/dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine microemulsion as a model for the interaction of lipid domains in cholesteryl ester rich very low density lipoproteins. These lipids were chosen specifically because their thermal transitions were distinct from each other, and their differences in chemical structure permitted the motion(s) of each lipid component to be monitored independently by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The model particles were formed by cosonication of cholesteryl oleate and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine in a 4:1 molar ratio for 45 min at 55-60 degrees C (above both lipid phase transition temperatures). The crude microemulsion was fractionated by low-speed centrifugation and Sepharose CL-2B chromatography. Microemulsion particles which eluted from the column at a volume similar to that of cholesteryl ester rich very low density lipoproteins had high cholesteryl ester:phospholipid ratios (2.5:1----6:1). Electron micrographs of negatively stained particles showed them to be large spheres devoid of multilamellar or unilamellar vesicle structures. Particle size calculated from a simple compositional model correlated well with sizes determined by electron microscopy (500-1000 A) for various column fractions. Differential scanning calorimetry studies of the microemulsion revealed two thermal transitions for the model particles, at 31.0 and 46.6 degrees C, which were tentatively assigned to the surface phospholipid and core cholesteryl ester domains, respectively. These assignments were confirmed by 13C NMR which demonstrated that, at temperatures near the lower thermotropic transition, only resonances derived from carbon atoms of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) were observable. As the temperature was raised to 38.6 degrees C, resonances from the olefinic carbons in the cholesteryl ester acyl chain appeared in the spectrum. At 46.6 degrees C, the center of the higher temperature endotherm, resonances from both the steroid ring and remaining acyl chain carbons of cholesteryl oleate became observable in the spectrum. Further increases in temperature did not result in the appearance of new resonances; however, those that were present narrowed and increased in intensity. The elevation in transition temperature for DMPC in these particles (31 degrees C) as compared to that for DMPC in small unilamellar (18 degrees C) and large multilamellar (23 degrees C) vesicles suggested a stabilization of the phospholipid monolayer, possibly by interaction with the nonpolar core lipids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Mims, MP; Guyton, JR; Morrisett, JD
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