LPS-sensory peptide communication in experimental cystitis.
Stimulation of sensory nerves can lead to release of peptides such as substance P (SP) and consequently to neurogenic inflammation. We studied the role of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in regulating SP-induced inflammation. Experimental cystitis was induced in female mice by intravesical instillation of SP, LPS, or fluorescein-labeled LPS. Uptake of fluorescein-labeled LPS was determined by confocal analysis, and bladder inflammation was determined by morphological analysis. SP was infused into the bladders of some mice 24 h after exposure to LPS. In vitro studies determined the capacity of LPS and SP to induce histamine and cytokine release by the bladder. LPS was taken up by urothelial cells and distributed systemically. Twenty-four hours after instillation of LPS or SP, bladder inflammation was characterized by edema and leukocytic infiltration of the bladder wall. LPS pretreatment enhanced neutrophil infiltration induced by SP, increased in vitro release of histamine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma, and significantly reduced transforming growth factor-beta1 release. These findings suggest that LPS amplifies neurogenic inflammation, thereby playing a role in the pathogenesis of neurogenic cystitis.
Saban, MR; Saban, R; Hammond, TG; Haak-Frendscho, M; Steinberg, H; Tengowski, MW; Bjorling, DE
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