Health economics of screening for gynaecological cancers.
In this chapter, we summarise findings from recent cost-effectiveness analyses of screening for cervical cancer and ovarian cancer. We begin with a brief summary of key issues that affect the cost-effectiveness of screening, including disease burden, and availability and type of screening tests. For cervical cancer, we discuss the potential effect of human papilloma virus vaccines on screening. Outstanding epidemiological and cost-effectiveness issues are included. For cervical cancer, this includes incorporating the long-term effect of treatment (including adverse birth outcomes in treated women who are of reproductive age) into cost-effectiveness models using newly available trial data to identify the best strategy for incorporating human papilloma virus tests. A second issue is the need for additional data on human papilloma virus vaccines, such as effectiveness of reduced cancer incidence and mortality, effectiveness in previously exposed women and coverage. Definitive data on these parameters will allow us to update model-based analyses to include more realistic estimates, and also potentially dramatically alter our approach to screening. For ovarian cancer, outstanding issues include confirming within the context of a trial that screening is effective for reducing mortality and incorporating tests with high specificity into screening into screening algorithms for ovarian cancer.
Kulasingam, S; Havrilesky, L
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