The crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis: where does this lead?
Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular processes contributing to autophagy have provided insight into the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis. In contrast to the concept of "autophagic cell death," accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy serves a largely cytoprotective role in physiologically relevant conditions. The cytoprotective function of autophagy is mediated in many circumstances by negative modulation of apoptosis. Apoptotic signaling, in turn, serves to inhibit autophagy. While the mechanisms mediating the complex counter-regulation of apoptosis and autophagy are not yet fully understood, important points of crosstalk include the interactions between Beclin-1 and Bcl-2/Bcl-xL and between FADD and Atg5, caspase- and calpain-mediated cleavage of autophagy-related proteins, and autophagic degradation of caspases. Continued investigation of these and other means of crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the balance between survival and death both under normal conditions and in diseases including cancer.
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