Predictors of loss of virologic response in subjects who simplified to lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy from lopinavir/ritonavir plus zidovudine/lamivudine.
Previous studies have demonstrated that lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy maintained plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression in a large proportion of antiretroviral naive subjects. However, more subjects receiving lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy experienced confirmed virologic rebound >50 copies/ml compared to a standard three-drug HAART regimen. In this study, we sought to determine the factors associated with maintenance of virologic suppression in subjects receiving lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy. Antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected volunteers were randomized 2:1 to initiate a lopinavir/ritonavir-based combination regimen followed by simplification to lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy or an efavirenz-based triple combination therapy and followed for 96 weeks. Potential predictors of time to loss of virologic response included baseline demographics, baseline HIV-1 RNA levels, baseline CD4(+) T cell counts, adherence as determined by 4-day subject recall, duration of HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml prior to simplification, and lopinavir concentrations. By the Cox proportional hazards model, higher reported adherence levels and higher baseline CD4(+) T cell counts were associated with a greater likelihood of maintaining virologic suppression while receiving lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy. Lopinavir concentrations, including trough concentrations, were not significantly associated with virologic outcomes. This analysis suggests that adherence and higher baseline CD4(+) T cell counts may help to predict who will sustain virologic suppression with lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy. The data also suggest that measuring lopinavir concentrations is not useful in predicting virologic response in these patients.
Campo, RE; Da Silva, BA; Cotte, L; Gathe, JC; Gazzard, B; Hicks, CB; Klein, CE; Chiu, Y-L; King, MS; Bernstein, BM
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